The tomato crop cannot bear frost. The ideal temperature for its cultivation is 18 to 27 degrees Celsius. is. The red color develops best in tomatoes at 21–24 ° C temperatures. For all these reasons, fruits are sweet and dark red in winter. Temperature 38 ° C When it exceeds, immature fruits and flowers fall.
Sandy loam land with proper drainage, in which adequate amount of bacteria is available
Varieties of Tomato: -
• Indigenous variety - Pusa Ruby, Pusa - 120, Pusa Sheetal, Pusa Gaurav, Arka Saurabh, Arka Vikas, Sonali
• Hybrids - Pusa Hybrid-1, Pusa Hybrid-2, Pusa Hybrid-4, Avinash-2, Rashmi and Shaktimaan from the private sector, Red Gold, 501, 2535 Utsav, Avinash, Miracle, US 440 etc.
Seed Volume and Sowing
Seed rate - About 350 to 400 grams of seed is sufficient to prepare a nursery for growing the crop in one hectare area. For hybrid varieties, 150-200 gram per hectare is sufficient.
Sowing - June-lit for the rainy season and January-February for the winter season. The crop should be grown in frostless areas or should be properly protected from frost.
Seed treatment- Seed treatment with Thyram / Metalaxil before sowing so as to prevent the invasion of fungal before germination.
Nursery & Transplanting
- 1 to 3 m for sowing in nursery. Make sterilized beds of starch with formaldehyde or add carbofuran @ 30g / sqm.
- Seeds of Carbendazim / Trichoderma per kg. Treated at the rate of seed, 5 cm Sow seeds in a row, keeping a distance of. After sowing the seeds cover the dung manure or soil and sprinkle with Hazare
- Dietary M-45 / Metallaxyl sprinkling should be done at an interval of 8–10 days after the seed is grown.
- Transplanting of 25 to 30 days before transplanting in the fields should be done only after treating the roots of the plants in Carbendizim or Tritoderma solution for 20-25 minutes.
- Plant 75 cm in proper field. Keep the saplings planted at a distance of 60 cm, keeping the distance of the line.
- Apply marigold around the rams. In the blooming stage, fruit penetrating insects give less egg in tomato crop and more eggs in marigold / flowers.
Use of Fertilizer
20 to 25 metric tons of cow dung is / is 200 kg of nitrogen, 100 kg of phosphorus and 100 kg of potash / s. There is deficiency of borax where sprinkling 0.3% borax results in more fruit.
Keep giving light water from the interval of 10-15 days in winter and 6-7 days in summer. If possible, farmers should irrigate by drip irrigation
Mounting soil and supporting plants (stacking) -
At the time of flowering in tomato, it is necessary to grow and support soil. Long-growing varieties of tomatoes need special support. By giving support to the plants, the fruits do not come in contact with soil and water, so there is no problem of rotting the fruit.
To provide support, after 30 to 45 days of transplanting, holes are tied at different heights in bamboo or wooden poles and then tie wire to the plants with wire. This process is called stacking.
- Weeding the crops as required. In the state of making flowers and fruits, one should not do goodness.
- When preparing the field as a chemical medicine, spraying of fluororelin (basalin) or pendimethalin within 7 days of transplanting.
Major Pests and Diseases
Insects - green oily, white fly, fruit borer and caterpillar
disease - wet melting or damping off, scorching or blight, fruit rot
Integrated Pest and Disease Control
• Deep plowing of fields in summer.
• Keep the nursery ground elevated from the ground level and perform sterilization by formaldehyde.
• The soil should have sufficient moisture in the soil for polythene sheet covered soil in March April
• Mixing of Trichoderma with cow dung should be mixed well in the bed.
• Spray the soil of the nursery with copper oxychloride solution 2-3 weeks after sowing.
• At the time of planting, keep the roots of the plant in a solution of Carbendazim or Trichoderma for 10 minutes.
• Planting of 2 to 3 sprays of imidacloprid or aciphate for Chepa, white fly and thrips at an interval of 15-20 days after planting. Sprinkle omite when the mite is present.
• Spraying of indoxacarb or profenophos for the fruit clogged worm and tobacco worm should be done with Seed treatment, Carbendazim or Mencozeb for treatment of life. If symptoms of disease are found in the standing crop, spraying of Metalexyl + Mancozeb or Blitox solution. Spray a sulfur solution having mold powder.
Fruit Harvesting, Production and Marketing
When the color of the fruit starts to turn light red, in that case, make the fruit fall apart by grading the fruit and separating the pest and disease bearing fruits with small size. Fill the graded fruits in carats and sell them to the nearest vegetable market or the market which has good tomato prices. Average yield of tomato is 400-500 quintal /. And the yield of hybrid tomatoes is 700 -800 quintal /. can happen till .