Medicinal properties of betel leaf:-
Pan has been used since ancient times due to its medicinal properties. According to the treatise Sushruta Samhita of Ayurveda, paan removes the sore throat and khichkhich. It removes the odor of the mouth and increases digestive power, while the application of fresh leaves is chopped off and prevents the decay of the wound. For the indigestion and anorexia, the use of betel leaves often with black pepper and the use of betel leaves to remove dried phlegm with salt and parsley in the mouth before sleeping is beneficial.
Paan is a parasitic plant whose roots are small, short and short-branched. While the stems are elongated, thin and branchless with broad leaves. Its leaves have high amount of chloroplast. Around the green stem of betel, 5-8 cm long, 6-12 cm small sticky roots emerge, which helps in climbing the vine.
The betel leaves are long, broad and elliptical in shape, while betel betel leaf is pungent, aromatic and sweet in taste.
The following organic elements are found mainly in betel leaf
Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, Sugar, Kinetic compound.
Conditions favorable for betel cultivation:
In India, betel cultivation is done differently in different regions, as in South India, where the rainfall is high and the humidity is high, the pan is done under natural conditions. Similarly, in Assam and northeastern India where the rainfall is high and the temperature is normal, betel farming is done in natural form. Whereas in northern India, where the summer and winter of Kadake occurs, betel cultivation is done as protected farming. Barges are constructed in these areas using the natural means of betel (bamboo, grass, etc.) and artificial moisture is added to the barges by providing moisture as per the requirements of the betel, so that betel vines can grow properly.
Climate conditions are an important factor for good betel cultivation. In this, proper temperature, humidity, light and shade, air condition, soil etc. are important factors for betel cultivation. Such pan-India cultivation in the west coast of the country, Basin area of Mumbai, Assam, Meghalaya, Hill areas of Tripura, Betele Crop coastal areas of Kerala as well as hot and dry areas of North India, low rainfall Kadapa, Chittur, Anantapur (A.P.) Poona, Satara, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), Banda, Lalitpur, Mahoba (U.P.) Chhatarpur (M.P.) etc. are also successfully carried out. Various components of climate are required for good betel cultivation. The details of which are as follows-
The betel vine is very sensitive to temperature. Best betel development occurs in areas where the temperature changes are moderate and minimal. The best temperature for betel cultivation is 28–35 ° C.
Light and shadow
Good light and good shade is required for betel cultivation. Generally 40-50 percent shade and long light duration are required for betel cultivation. The main reason for this is to be regular by doing photosynthesis in betel leaves. Producing chlorophyll of betel leaves is good in good light. As a result, betel leaves are good and production is good.
Good humidity is required for good betel cultivation. It is worth mentioning that the growth of Pan Bel occurs in the most rainy season, mainly because of the good humidity. In good humidity, nutrient transmission to the leaves is good. The stem is good in the leaves, resulting in good production.
It is worth mentioning that the speed of air is the main factor affecting the rate of evaporation. While dry winds cause damage for betel cultivation, moist and humid winds are very beneficial for betel farming in the rainy season.
1)Fertile soil with fine humus is very beneficial for good betel cultivation. By the way, betel cultivation is also successfully done in various areas of the country in Balui, Domt, Red and Alubial Soil and Latarite Soil. Proper drainage areas are required for betel cultivation. In the state, betel cultivation is usually done in sloping and telenoid areas where there is a good drainage system. Soil with 7-7.5 pH value is best for betel cultivation.
2)In the country, betel farming is done in different areas in many ways. Such as in coconut and betel nut plantations in the coastal areas, while in South India, pan cultivation is done in open conservation schools. Whereas in North India, betel farming is done in closed conservation schools, known as "Bareja or Bhite".
1)In the form of seedlings, pan bale is taken from the middle part, which is an ideal pen for planting. In order to have good germination and enlightenment in the betel vine, the pan cuttings are covered by mulching the grass properly and sprinkling water for three times. Since temperature rises at a very rapid pace from March. Therefore, moisture is created by giving water for the protection of the plants, so that humidity remains in the barges. For good propagation of betel vine, along with vines, we also cultivate flax, which provides shade and protection to paan vines as required.
2)It is worth mentioning that if the betel vines are not preserved, then the heat in the vines has an early effect and the belts have shrinkage and the leaves are scorched from the sides, affecting production. Therefore, good cultivation of betel leaves requires utmost care and good care. For good cultivation, it is necessary to treat betel-leaves with fungicide and also treat them with growth regulator, so that proper growth of roots, such as N.A., I.B.A., etc.
3)It is necessary to keep proper distance from row to row for good farming. For this, the distance from row to row is kept 30 × 30 cm 0 or 45 × 45 cm 0 as per the requirement.
In order to destroy bacteria and fungi that affect the betel crop, it is necessary to do soil treatment before planting the pan pen. For this, 1 percent concentration of Bordeaux mixture is sprayed.
1)Betel cuttings require treatment at the time of transplanting as well as at the time of transplantation. For this, 500 ppm streptocycline is used along with 50 percent Borda mixture for treating soil even before sowing. After that, even before sowing, the above mixture is used to protect the vines from mold and bacteria.
to give support
2)his is an important task for betel cultivation. When the pan buds are 6 weeks old, they are used to mount the vines using bamboo sponges, flax seeds or jute sticks. After 7-8 weeks, the leaves of the pen are separated from the vines, which is called "pedi ka paan". It has special demand in the market and its price is also higher than normal betel leaves.
3)In this way, after 10-12 weeks, when the betel leaves are 1.5-2 feet, then the betel leaf of the betel leaves is started. When the beige becomes 2.5–3 m or 8–10 ft, they are revived to develop reproducibility in the bales. For this, leaving 8-10 month old vines on top of 0.5-7.5 cm, wrap them in rings of 15-20 cm diameter and keep them near the root of the support and partially suppress the soil and lightly irrigate them. Huh.
4)It is noteworthy that littering of the vines restricts their growth and makes the process of drinking betel leaves simple. At the same time, a large quantity of forts are sprouted from roots and sprouted, which gives more food and good production to the new ones.
Irrigation and drainage system-
In northern India, irrigation is required two to three times in the jaws four times a day (in summer). The drainage system is also necessary for betel cultivation. Due to excess moisture, the roots of betel leaves, which affects the production. Hence Dhaalu Numa place is best for betel cultivation.
Betel cultivation is a fairly cost cultivation. Therefore, it is necessary to produce inter cropping crops in betel farming for good profit. For this, along with betel farming in North India, parwal, kundroo, taroi, gourd, cucumber, chilli, ginger, poy, yam, peepers etc. are successfully cultivated.
Good crop cycle should be used in free time for good betel cultivation. For this, cultivation of pulses crops like -Urd, moong, pigeonpea, groundnut and green fodder crops like sanai, dhaincha, etc. should be cultivated. So that good amount of nitrogen is available in the soil.
Fertilizers are often used in betel farming to ensure betel vines get good nutrients. Organic elements are often used in betel cultivation. In North India, mustard, sesame, neem or egg cake is used, which is given at 15 days interval in July-October. A small amount of urea is also used along with cake in the rainy days.
Method of use
The cake is powdered and soaked in an earthen pot and allowed to decompose for 10 days. After that, it is prepared by mixing it on the roots of the vine. To make it more nutritious, wheat, rice and gram flour are also used in that solution.
02 tonnes of cake per ha is used throughout the season for betel cultivation. It is worth mentioning that the ratio of per gall pan required nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium is 80: 14: 100 kg respectively, which can be used for pan bales using the said cake. Is provided
• Note: 1. For proper growth and growth of betel vine, subtle elements and growth regulators are also used.
• For land treatment, 1% concentration of bordeaux is used and at the end of the rainy season, bordeauxure is used (0.5% concentration) on betel vines.
Method of preparation
01 kg of lime (extinguished lime) and 01 kg of tutia are prepared by soaking them in separate pottery (clay) in 10-10 liters of water, then pouring both the slurry on another wooden vessel in such a way that The edge of both fell together. The solution prepared in this way is boardmixed. After mixing 80 liters of water in this 20 liters mixture, we prepare 100 liters of it and use it in betel cultivation.
Method of use
- For the land purification, 24 hours before spraying the house of Bordeomixation.
- Bordomixion can be used once a month from July to October in standing crops.
Major betel species
The species that are mainly used in North India are: native, Deshawari, Kalkatiya, Kapuri, Bangla,
Saunfia, Ramtek, Maghai, Banarsi etc.
Use of soil
The roots of betel vine are very tender, which cannot bear the heat and cold. Soil is used to cover betel leaf. They use black soil in June, July and red mud in October and November.
For good production in betel cultivation, weeding is required from time to time. Needless weeds should be removed from the barges from time to time. Likewise, in September, October, we make a ridge at a distance of 40-50 cm by folding the soil with the hoe between the crosses and offer the soil as required.
It is a fungal disease, the main factor of which is "Phytophthora parasitica". By its use, dark brown spots are formed on the leaves, which remain even after the end of the rainy season. They cause great harm to the palate.
1 Diseased plants should be uprooted and destroyed completely.
- The main factor of this disease is irrigation. Therefore pure water should be used.
- Bordomixure or Blitax with 0.5 percent concentration should be used during the rainy season.
It is also a fungal disease, the main factor of which is the fungus called piperina of "Phytophthora parasitica". This causes sedation to begin at the base of the bale. Due to its outbreak, the plants wither and die in a short time.
1 Proper arrangement of drainage should be made in the barges.
- Diseased plants should be uprooted and destroyed.
- Build barreja in a new place.
- Before sowing, land reclamation should be done by Bordomixion.
- In case of disease symptoms on crop, spraying of 0.5% Bordomixion should be done.
Cervical rot or cervical disease:-
It is also a fungal disease, the main factor of which is the fungal called "sclerosium selfsai". Due to its outbreak, deep wounds develop in the vines, the leaves turn yellow and the crop is destroyed.
1 diseased vine should be uprooted and destroyed completely.
- Before sowing the crop, land reclamation should be done.
- To prevent infestation on crop 0.5% solution of Dithane M0-45 should be sprayed.
It is also a fungal disease, the main factor of which is "colletotraicum catacy". Its infection can occur on any part of the stem. Initially it appears as small black spots, which get moisture and spread. This also causes considerable damage to the crop.
1.0.5 percent of bordeauximination should be used.
- Sprinkling of Sesopar or Bavstein should be done.
Purnil Asita or;
The disease is also a fungal disease, the main cause of which is "Idea piperis". In this, initially small white to brown powdery spots appear on the leaves. They cause great damage to the crop.
After spraying 1 crop, 0.5% solution should be sprayed.
- Casein or colloidal sulfur should be used.
Bacterial diseases in betel crops also cause great damage to the crop. Following are the main bacterial diseases caused by betel leaf: -
Leaf spot or leaf spots
Its main factor is "Pseudomodas bacillus". Symptoms are seen following the outbreak. In this, brown round or angular spots appear on the leaves, due to which the plants are destroyed.
1 For its control "Phytomycin and Agromycin-100" should be used with glycerin.
It is visible on the stem as brown spots in length. The stem bursts due to its effect.
1 To control this, a mixture of 150 grams of planto bicin and 150 grams of copper sulphate in 600 liters should be sprayed.
- 0.5% Bordeaux mixture should be sprayed.
This infestation causes brown or black spots on the leaves, which scorch the leaves.
1 For its control streptocycline 200 ppm or 0.25 per cent bordeauxin should be sprayed.
The cultivation of betel leaves many types of insects, affecting the production of betel leaf. Following is the description of the major keto affecting the betel crop: -
This insect, which appears between June and October, eats betel leaves and creates explosive holes on the leaves. It eats the tissue between the veins of the betel, causing the leaves to wilt or shrink and finally dry the vine.
- To control this, the solution of tobacco root solution should be prepared by spraying 1 liter solution in 20 liters of water.
- Endosulfan or malathion with 0.04 percent concentration should be used.
It is a light-colored oval-shaped insect of 5 cm length, covered with a white powdery casing. They are in groups and lay eggs at the bottom of betel leaves, on which their life cycle runs. Most of their outbreaks occur during the rainy season. This causes a lot of damage to the betel crop.
To control this, spraying of Malathiran solution with 0.03-0.05 percent concentration should be done as required.
This insect, which appears on betel leaves between October and March, is a conch of length 1-1.5 mm and width of 0.5-1 mm. This insect eats the lower surface of the new betel leaves, which affects the entire vine. Due to its infestation, the growth of betel leaf stops and the leaves become waste after every quarter.
To control this, spraying of 0.02 percent rogaar or Democran should be done on the leaves.
Red and black ants
These are brownish red or black ants, which cause damage to betel leaves and vines. Inak outbreak occurs when after the outbreak of Mahu, it attacks to get the honey emitted from them.
Control and treatment:-
- To control them, 0.02 percent Democran or 0.5 percent concentration Malathion should be used.
There is also an outbreak of nematodes in betel leaf. They cause maximum damage to root and cuttings of pan vine.
Control and treatment
- To control them, Karvofuram and Neemkhali should be used. Quantity is as follows: -
Carbofuram 1.5 kg Is per Or 0.75 kg in 0.5 tons of Neemkhali. Carvofuram mixture should be prepared and used in betel cultivation.